Medical Library

Laparoscopic Ovariectomy

There are several surgical techniques available to make female pets unable to reproduce.  The most common surgical technique in the United States is open surgical ovariohysterectomy (spay), which involves a full incision into the abdomen and removal of both ovaries and uterine horns.  Alternatively, and equally effective, is the surgical removal of both ovaries (ovariectomy)…

Read More


Tracheal Collapse

Background Tracheal collapse is a chronic and progressive condition which can become life-threatening. The trachea is a tube-like structure which directs air from the mouth towards the lungs. Normally, this tube is held open by firm rings of cartilage, but with tracheal collapse these cartilage rings become weak. The weakened cartilage begins to sag allowing…

Read More


Sialocele (Salivary Mucocele)

Sialocele is defined as the accumulation of saliva in the tissue due to leakage from a salivary gland or salivary duct. This condition is rare and occurs in less than 5/1,000 dogs. The condition is most common in young dogs, 2-4 years of age. It occurs more commonly in German Shepherds and Miniature Poodles. It…

Read More


Cystotomy and Scrotal Urethrostomy

Cystic calculi, also called bladder stones or uroliths, are commonly seen in both dogs and cats. There are four predominant types of bladder stones: struvite, calcium oxalate, purine, and urate. Between 5-15% of bladder stones are mixed composition. Treatment options and risk factors depend on the type of stone present, therefore each bladder stone is…

Read More


Urethral Prolapse

Urethral Prolapse Urethral prolapse is defined as the extrusion of the urethral mucosa through the external urethral orifice of the penis. This condition occurs most commonly in young male dogs that have not been neutered. Brachycephalic breeds (e.g., bulldogs, Boston terriers, pugs) and Yorkshire terriers may be predisposed to urethral prolapse. Although we don’t know…

Read More


Intervertebral Disk Disease (IVDD): 30+ Years of Neurosurgery at the DVSC

The Dallas Veterinary Surgery Center (DVSC) was initially founded in 1986, principally as a neurosurgical referral practice, with greater than 50% of the total case load being neurosurgical. Throughout the years we have always strived to be on the “cutting-edge” of neurosurgical techniques and diagnostic procedures. Our surgeons have been involved with the development and…

Read More


Intervertebral Disk Disease (IVDD): Facts About Backs

Intervertebral disc disease (IVDD) is a very serious and common disease seen in thousands of dogs every year.   IVDD most frequently affects chondrodystrophic dogs—those characterized by having short legs and long backs, like the Dachshund and Bassett hound for example. However, IV disc herniation can occur in any breed—even in cats. Anatomy and disease process…

Read More


Intervertebral Disk Disease (IVDD): Prevention- Laser Disc Ablation

Percutaneous Laser Disc Ablation (PLDA) is a minimally invasive preventative procedure for degenerative disc disease in dogs. This procedure was developed by Dr. Kenneth E. Bartels at Oklahoma State University. Over 350 dogs have undergone percutaneous disc ablation since the procedure was clinically introduced in 1993. PLDA is recommended as a preventative procedureto reduce the risk…

Read More


Anal Sac Adenocarcinoma

Dogs have two anal sacs (glands) beneath the skin which are located at the four and eight o’clock positions of the anus. (Figure 1) The anal sac duct opens into the edge of the anus. The anal sacs and ducts are closely associated with the anal sphincter muscle. When the anal sacs are expressed, fluid…

Read More


Anal Sac Removal, Elective

Anatomy: Dogs have two anal sacs (glands) beneath the skin which are located at the four and eight o’clock positions of the anus. (Figure 1) The anal sac duct opens into the edge of the anus. The anal sacs and ducts are closely associated with the anal sphincter muscle. When the anal sacs are expressed,…

Read More


Arthritis

Arthitis is defined as inflammation of one or more synovial joints, usually accompanied by pain, swelling, and stiffness.  Causes of arthritis are joint instability, trauma, degenerative changes (osteoarthritis), infection (bacterial or fungal arthritis), metabolic disturbances, or immune mediated disease (rheumatoid arthritis). Osteoarthritis caused by joint or ligament injury is most common in dogs and cats.…

Read More


Arthroscopy

Arthroscopy is for both the diagnosis and treatment of a variety joint diseases.  Arthro- is derived from the greek word for joint while –scope (“skopein”) is a greek word meaning an instrument for viewing. There are multiple advantages of arthroscopy over open arthrotomy with a traditional incision.  Arthroscopy is minimally invasive and allows better visualization of…

Read More


Atlanto-axial (A-A) instability

Atlanto-axial (A-A) instability is generally seen in juvenile toy breeds due to congenital malformation or absence of the dens and/or associated ligamentous structures. A-A instability is occasionally seen in other breeds due to trauma. Patients will often present with neck pain, weakness and occasionally paralysis. Surgical stabilization of the A-A articulation is the treatment of…

Read More


Coxofemoral (Hip) Luxation

The hip is the articulation between the femur (thigh bone) and the pelvis.  It is considered a “ball-and-socket” joint in which the “ball” is the head of the femur and the “socket” is the acetabulum of the pelvis. Coxofemoral luxation occurs when the head of the femur becomes luxated (dislocated) from the acetabulum.  Below is…

Read More


Cranial Cruciate Ligament (CCL) Overview

What is a cruciate tear? Canine cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) disease is the most common orthopedic injury seen in dogs.  You may hear veterinarians refer to this injury as an “ACL tear,” which is an adaptation from human orthopedics, but the terms are often used interchangeably.  The CCL is a ligament inside the knee that…

Read More


Cranial Cruciate Ligament (CCL) – Extracapsular Repair

Lateral fabellar suture, Tightrope, and Bone anchor procedures: Background Cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) disease is the most common orthopedic disease in dogs ( see CCL Overview Section ).  The CCL is located inside the knee and functions to stabilize the knee during locomotion. Because the articular surface of the canine tibia (shin bone) is sloped backward, normal…

Read More


Cranial Cruciate Ligament (CCL) – Tibial Plateau Leveling Osteotomy (TPLO)

Background Cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) disease is the most common orthopedic disease in dogs (see CCL overview section ).  The CCL is located inside the knee and functions to stabilize the knee during locomotion. Because the articular surface of the canine tibia (shin bone) is sloped backward, normal locomotion leads to forward translation (tibial thrust)…

Read More


Cranial Cruciate Ligament (CCL)-Tibial Tuberosity Advancement (TTA)

Tibial Tuberosity Advancement (TTA) Background Cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) disease is the most common orthopedic disease in dogs (see CCL overview section)  The CCL is located inside the knee and functions to stabilize the knee during locomotion. Because the articular surface of the canine tibia (shin bone) is sloped backward, normal locomotion leads to forward…

Read More


Mandibulectomy and Maxillectomy

Mandibulectomy and maxillectomy, removal of portions of the mandible and/or maxilla,  are valuable procedures in treatment of oral neoplasms (cancers). The most common indication is for excision of benign or locally aggressive neoplasms, such as the epulides. Removal of malignant neoplasms, such as osteosarcoma, offers a more guarded prognosis, with increased chance for distant metastases. Tumors…

Read More


Mast Cell Tumors

Cutaneous mast cell tumors (MCT) are a common form of neoplasia(cancer) in the dog. Mast cells are normal immune system cells. The intracellular cytoplasmic granules contain heparin, histamine, platelet-activating factor, and eosinophilic chemotactic factor. The visual appearance of cutaneous MCT is variable; they can look like almost any lesion. MCT are generally easily diagnosed with…

Read More


Degenerative Myelopathy

Degenerative myelopathy is a slowly progressive neurologic disorder that is manifested as a rear limb weakness that will eventually cause rear limb paralysis.  Degenerative myelopathy was first described in 1973 as a non-inflammatory primary axonal degeneration.  This disease affects both the myelin surrounding the nerve fibers and the nerve fibers themselves.  Myelin is a structure…

Read More


Diaphragmatic Hernia

Traumatic diaphragmatic hernias Definition The diaphragm is a muscle made up of two parts, a strong central portion and a weaker outer portion. The diaphragm separates the abdominal cavity from the thoracic cavity. A diaphragmatic hernia (DH) occurs when the diaphragm is disrupted in a way such that abdominal organs can enter the thoracic cavity.…

Read More


Diskospondylitis

Discospondylitis is an infection of the intervertebral disk and end plates. Hematogenous spread secondary to a pre-existing condition, urinary or skin infections are noted in some cases. Diskospondylitis is commonly seen in young large breed dogs and rarely in cats. The L7-S1 disk is the most common site affected; involvement of multiple sites is common.…

Read More


Ear Canal Ablation and Bulla Osteotomy

The canine and feline ear is comprised of the pinna (ear flap), vertical ear canal, horizontal ear canal, middle ear, and inner ear.  The ear canal is mostly comprised of secretory epithelium (skin) and cartilage. The middle ear is deep to the ear drum and is surrounded by bone known as the tympanic bulla. The…

Read More


Elbow Dysplasia

Scoping Elbow dysplasia is a common cause of forelimb lameness in large and giant breed dogs. Breeds that are overrepresented include the Labrador Retriever, Golden Retriever, Chow Chow, Rottweiler and Bernese Mountain Dog. Elbow dysplasia includes a group of specific diseases, including primary incongruency of the elbow joint, fragmented coronoid process…

Read More


Epidural Analgesia

An epidural injection of an opioid and/or a local anesthetic is most commonly given under anesthesia, immediately prior to abdominal or pelvic limb surgery. Readers are referred to texts for information on specific drugs and dosages. The site for epidural injection is the lumbosacral space in both dogs and cats. The patient is placed in…

Read More


Episioplasty

Episioplasty, the surgical excision of excessive perivulvar skin folds, is recommended as the treatment of choice for perivulvar dermatitis or chronic or recurrent urinary tract infections (UTI) believed to be secondary to excessive perivulvar skin folds. Perivulvar dermatitis has been reported to develop in female dogs with congenital or conformational abnormalities such as hypoplastic, infantile,…

Read More


Perineal Urethrostomy

Perineal Urethrostomy, commonly abbreviated PU, is the surgical treatment of choice for male cats that have recurrent episodes of urethral obstruction. Cats as a species are highly susceptible to environmental stress and particular cats will develop a condition known as “feline idiopathic cystitis” or FIC.  FIC results in inflammation of the urinary tract and produces…

Read More


Femoral Head Ostectomy (FHO)

Background The femoral head ostectomy (FHO) is a salvage procedure that can be performed on both dogs and cats of almost any age.  The FHO removes the femoral head and neck of the femur in order to eliminate the bone-on-bone contact of the hip. This is done to alleviate pain associated with diseased or injured…

Read More


Fibrocartilaginous Embolism (FCE)

Fibrocartilaginous embolic myelopathy Fibrocartilaginous embolism (FCE) occurs when fibrocartilaginous material becomes trapped within a spinal or vertebral blood vessel.  FCE can be thought of as a “stroke to the spinal cord.” When this happens, blood supply to a small portion of the spinal cord is compromised and spinal cord injury ensues. The fibrocartilaginous material is…

Read More


Fibrocartilaginous Embolus in Schnauzers

A recent report in the AAHA Journal indicates that a fibrocartilaginous embolus (FCE) is a common cause of rear limb paralysis in Schnauzers. The exact cause of FCE is still unknown but current theories focus on material being pushed from the intervertebral disc into the vertebral sinus system, thereby creating an embolic episode in the…

Read More


Fracture Healing by Biologic Osteosynthesis

As long as there is adequate stabilization, even highly comminuted fractures will heal faster when the soft tissue envelope has not been disrupted. The rate of fracture healing and remodeling depends on several factors, including the degree of soft tissue injury. Preservation of the soft tissue envelope maintains blood supply to the fracture fragments and…

Read More


Fracture of the Radius and Ulna in Small breed dogs

  The distal radius and ulna of toy breed dogs  has been shown to have a higher than normal incidence of abnormal healing of the bone following fracture repair. Placement of a cast or splint alone or combined with an IM pin does not provide for rotational stability and has a high incidence of fibrous…

Read More


Fracture Repair by Circular External Skeletal Fixator (ESF)

Circular external skeletal fixators (CESF), also known as the Ilizarov apparatus or ring fixators, are a series of 2-4 high strength aluminum rings connected with threaded rods, hinges or distraction motors. A CESF is secured to bone using 1-1.6mm highly tensioned wires, or positive threaded fixation pins. Small bone fragments, less than 1cm in length…

Read More


Gastrointestinal Foreign Body

Inevitably, pets eat things they shouldn’t. A gastrointestinal (GI) foreign body is any non-food item that alters the normal flow of materials through the gastrointestinal tract. Foreign bodies are a common reason for emergency presentation of pets to their veterinarian, and can be life threatening if not addressed in an appropriate manner. When an animal…

Read More


Gastric Dilatation-Volvulus (Bloat)

Gastric dilatation-volvulus (GDV) is a life threatening condition that commonly affects dogs. The term “dilatation” refers to a condition in which the stomach becomes engorged with air and froth, swelling to many times its normal size. The term “volvulus” refers to the condition in which the stomach actually flips or twists on its axis, preventing…

Read More


Gastropexy, Elective

Gastropexy is a surgical procedure in which the stomach is permanently adhered to the internal abdominal wall in order to prevent gastric torsion or gastric dilatation-volvulus (GDV). Gastropexy is performed at the same time as GDV surgery, or prophylactically on an elective basis in healthy dogs susceptible to developing GDV.  Some veterinarians recommend prophylactic gastropexy…

Read More


Hip Dysplasia (Overview)

Hip dysplasia is one of the most common orthopedic conditions diagnosed in dogs. Hip dysplasia is defined as abnormal growth and development of the hip joint. Hip dysplasia has been shown to have a genetic component, but many parts of the disease’s etiology and pathogenesis are still unclear. Because of the known genetic component to…

Read More


Intervertebral Disc Disease (IVDD) Percutaneous Laser Disc Ablation LDA

Percutaneous Laser Disc Ablation (PLDA) is a minimally invasive preventative procedure for thoracolumbar degenerative disc disease in dogs. This procedure was developed by Dr. Kenneth E. Bartels at Oklahoma State University. Hundreds of dogs have undergone percutaneous disc ablation since the procedure was clinically introduced in 1993. PLDA is recommended as a preventative procedure to…

Read More


Intervertebral Disc Disease (IVDD)- Care of a Paralyzed Pet

There are some spinal conditions that result in paralysis, which is the inability to move the legs.  The most common cause of paralysis in dogs is intervertebral disk disease. Most dogs that suffer from disk disease can be cured with medical or surgical treatment, and so their paralysis is only temporary.  However, sometimes spinal cord…

Read More


Incontinence: Urethral Sphincter Mechanism Incompetence

Urethral sphincter mechanism incompetence (USMI) is the most commonly diagnosed cause of urinary incontinence in adult dogs, and is second only to ectopic ureters as a cause of incontinence in juveniles. USMI is most commonly seen in female dogs, but is also diagnosed in male dogs as well as cats. The disease can be congenital…

Read More


Laryngeal Paralysis

Laryngeal Paralysis Overview Laryngeal paralysis is a condition in dogs and cats that results when the nerve that controls one of the muscles in the larynx, the cricoarytenoideus dorsalis (CAD) muscle, is not functioning. This muscle is responsible for opening the arytenoid cartilages of the larynx when an animal breathes so that air may pass…

Read More


Lumbosacral Disease

  Lumbosacral stenosis is a common cause of pain in older, large breed dogs. In some cases the patient may demonstrate intermittent non-weight bearing lameness in one pelvic limb, if the compression is asymmetric. Patients suffering from LS disease generally present with either intense lower back pain or pain/lameness involving one rear leg (root signature…

Read More


Medial Patellar Luxation (MPL)

Medial Patella Luxation What is a medial patella luxation? Medial patella luxation (MPL) is a common cause of orthopedic lameness in both small and large breed dogs.  In the simplest terms this condition is when the patella, or “knee cap”, slips in and out of its natural position.  Normally the patella sits in a groove…

Read More


Microvascular Dysplasia Mimics Portosystemic Shunt

  Microvascular dysplasia (MD)is a disease in which the patients have abnormal, microscopic communications between the portal and systemic venous systems within the liver parenchyma. These microscopic shunt vessels allow the portal blood to escape normal filtration by the liver parenchyma, similar to a traditional, portosystemic shunt. Breeds affected with MD are similar to traditional…

Read More


Laparoscopic Soft Tissue Surgery

In addition to arthroscopy, the DVSC offers a complete array of laparoscopic and laparoscopic assisted procedures. As the demand for minimally invasive soft tissue procedures has grown, so has our commitment to providing cutting edge care for our small animal patients. The advantages of laparoscopic procedures versus open procedures are similar to our arthroscopy patients:…

Read More


Neurosurgical Postoperative Physical Therapy

Many patients with medically and surgically managed neurological disorders greatly benefit by postoperative rehabilitation and physical therapy. The DVSC is associated with a team of dedicated physical therapists trained in the human field that can develop a tailored physical therapy program for each pet to aid in the rehabilitation process. Techniques such as swimming, static/dynamic…

Read More


Care for Paralyzed Pets

Caring for Your Paralyzed Pet Serious spinal injuries and paralysis are not uncommon in dogs, especially dogs that suffer from intervertebral disk disease. In some cases, dogs are paralyzed in just the rear legs, but sometimes they are paralyzed in all 4 legs. Hopefully paralysis is temporary during recovery, but sometimes paralysis is permanent.   Here…

Read More


Perianal Fistula Management in Dogs

Perianal Fistula Management in Dogs Perianal fistulas are a common cause of perineal and tail irritation in dogs. Large breed dogs, especially German Shepherds, are overrepresented. Historically, treatment has consisted of various invasive procedures, including debridement/excision, fulguration, laser treatment and chemical debridement. Failure rates with surgical treatment are high, including recurrence of the fistulas and…

Read More


Perineal Hernias

What is a perineal hernia? Perineal hernia is a condition where the muscles in the pelvis weaken and separate allowing organs and tissues to prolapse through this new space.  A swelling adjacent to the anus may occur as a result.  Older intact male dogs (un-neutered) are the most commonly affected, although it can occur in…

Read More


Perineal Hernias are a Problem in Intact Male Dogs

  Perineal hernias are primarily diagnosed in older, intact male dogs. They remain a challenging and common clinical problem. With chronic straining due to an enlarged prostate, the muscles of the pelvic diaphragm become fatigued and atrophied, and allow herniation of the rectum and surrounding tissues. Most herniations are located in either the left or…

Read More


Peritoneopercardial Hernias in Dogs and Cats

Peritoneopericardial hernias (PPH) are an unusual sub type of diaphragmatic hernias. PPH occur secondary to incomplete separation of the diaphragm from the pericardium during embryogenesis, and are considered to be a congenital defect. Many PPH are discovered as an incidental finding during routine thoracic and/or abdominal radiographs.Typical findings include  enlargement of the cardiac silhouette and…

Read More


Portosystemic Shunts

What is a portosystemic shunt? A portosystemic shunt occurs when the blood from the intestines (carried by the portal vein) enters into the systemic circulation without first passing through the liver. This becomes a problem because the liver normally filters the toxins contained in the portal blood before it passes to the rest of the…

Read More


Spinal Fractures and Subluxations

Fractures land luxations of the cervical and thoracolumbar spine (Figure 1) are commonly managed at the DVSC. Options for treatment include surgical stabilization or conservative treatment with external braces, confinement, and analgesics. The best course of treatment depends on the neurologic status and health of the patient and the expectations of the owne   Several…

Read More


Splenectomy

Hemoabdomen, or hemoperitoneum, is an accumulation of blood in the abdominal cavity. The condition is a common reason for emergency presentation of pets to the veterinary hospital. While hemoabdomen does occur in cats, it is a more commonly seen condition in dogs. Any age or breed of dog or cat may be afflicted with this…

Read More


Total Hip Replacement

Overview: Total hip replacement is a surgical procedure which reliably restores comfort and near normal function to dogs with a variety of painful hip conditions. Advantages include relatively quick recovery, predictable results, and options if complications are encountered. Disadvantages are cost, and need for extended exercise restriction.   Indications: The most common condition for which…

Read More


Triple Pelvic Osteotomy (TPO)

Triple pelvic osteotomy (TPO) remains a valuable surgery in the prevention of degenerative joint disease secondary to hip laxity. The surgeons at DVSC recommend that hips of susceptible breeds be palpated beginning at 4-6 months of age. If laxity is detected, owners should be informed about the benefits of the TPO procedure. The basis of…

Read More


Underwater Treadmill

  A key component of North Texas Animal Rehabilitation (NTAR) is the underwater treadmill. This treadmill will be used by our patients to minimize postoperative swelling, increase muscle strength and encourage early use of the operated limb.         Play movie clip (total time: 0:05)         In addition to the…

Read More


Updates in Fracture Management

The Dallas Veterinary Surgery Center (DVSC) utilizes many resources to help pets recover from their fractures, and the type of fixation is determined by multiple factors including the patient’s age, type of injury, and expected activity level. The goal of fracture fixation is to immobilize the fracture segments to create a healing environment and to…

Read More


Wobblers Disease

Typically the instability involves the C4 – C7 spine which results in hypertrophy of the dorsal longitudinal ligament (which lies on the floor of the spinal canal) resulting in ventral spinal cord compression. A myelogram or CT will identify the ventral cord compression. When traction is placed on the cervical spine, and the myelogram/CT is…

Read More


Intervertebral Disc Disease (IVDD) Management of Type I Disc Disease Part II

  Without a doubt, the most common neurosurgical condition presented to veterinarians is IV disc herniation.Herniated discs occur between C2 – C7 and T10 – L5, with C2 – C3 and T12 – T13 being the most common. Chondro-dystophic breeds (Dachshunds, Cocker Spaniels, Lhasa Apsos, etc.) represent the majority of these patients. However, IV disc herniation…

Read More


Intervertebral Disc Disease (IVDD) Advances in Spinal Imaging

  Visualizing lesions affecting the spinal cord has always been challenging, since many are not apparent on routine radiographs. We are frequently presented with patients that have the complaint of ataxia, incoordinated walking-weakness, paresis or spinal pain. Choosing which imaging tests to perform can be confusing. Each form of imaging has its place and its…

Read More


Intervertebral Disc Disease (IVDD) Facts about Backs

Intervertebral disc disease (IVDD) is a very serious and common disease seen in thousands of dogs every year. The surgeons at the Dallas Veterinary Surgical Center (DVSC) want to have the best possible results with treatment of your patients with IVDD. The following information is provided to clarify some common questions concerning IVDD. While there…

Read More


Filter By


All

Anal Sac

Arthritis

Arthroscopy

Atlanto-axial (A-A)

Bulla Osteotomy

Coxofemoral (Hip) Luxation

Cranial Cruciate Ligament

Cystotomy

Degenerative Myelopathy

Diaphragmatic Hernia

Diskospondylitis

Ear Canal Ablation

Elbow Dysplasia

Epidural Analgesia

Episioplasty

Femoral Head Ostectomy

Fibrocartilaginous Embolism

Fracture Management

Gastrointestinal

Hip Dysplasia

Intervertebral Disk Disease

Laparoscopy

Laryngeal Paralysis

Lumbosacral Disease

Mandibulectomy

Mast Cell Tumors

Maxillectomy

Medial Patellar Luxation

Microvascular Dysplasia

Neurosurgical Postoperative Physical Therapy

Paralyzed pets

Perianal Fistula

Perineal Hernia

Perineal Urethrostomy

Peritoneopercardial Hernias

Portosystemic Shunts

Scrotal Urethrostomy

Sialocele

Spinal Fractures and Subluxations

Splenectomy

Total Hip Replacement

Tracheal Collapse

Triple Pelvic Osteotomy

Underwater Treadmill

Urethral Prolapse

Urethral Sphincter

Wobblers Disease