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Diaphragmatic Hernia

Traumatic diaphragmatic hernias Definition The diaphragm is a muscle made up of two parts, a strong central portion and a weaker outer portion. The diaphragm separates the abdominal cavity from the thoracic cavity. A diaphragmatic hernia (DH) occurs when the diaphragm is disrupted in a way such that abdominal organs can enter the thoracic cavity. […]

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Diskospondylitis

Discospondylitis is an infection of the intervertebral disk and end plates. Hematogenous spread secondary to a pre-existing condition, urinary or skin infections are noted in some cases. Diskospondylitis is commonly seen in young large breed dogs and rarely in cats. The L7-S1 disk is the most common site affected; involvement of multiple sites is common. […]

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Ear Canal Ablation and Bulla Osteotomy

The canine and feline ear is comprised of the pinna (ear flap), vertical ear canal, horizontal ear canal, middle ear, and inner ear.  The ear canal is mostly comprised of secretory epithelium (skin) and cartilage. The middle ear is deep to the ear drum and is surrounded by bone known as the tympanic bulla. The […]

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Elbow Dysplasia

Elbow dysplasia is a common cause of forelimb lameness in large and giant breed dogs. Breeds that are overrepresented include the Labrador Retriever, Golden Retriever, Chow Chow, Rottweiler and Bernese Mountain Dog. Elbow dysplasia includes a group of specific diseases, including primary incongruency of the elbow joint, fragmented coronoid process (FCP), ununited anconeal process (UAP), […]

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Epidural Analgesia

An epidural injection of an opioid and/or a local anesthetic is most commonly given under anesthesia, immediately prior to abdominal or pelvic limb surgery. Readers are referred to texts for information on specific drugs and dosages. The site for epidural injection is the lumbosacral space in both dogs and cats. The patient is placed in […]

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Episioplasty

  Episioplasty, the surgical excision of excessive perivulvar skin folds, is recommended as the treatment of choice for perivulvar dermatitis or chronic or recurrent urinary tract infections (UTI) believed to be secondary to excessive perivulvar skin folds. Perivulvar dermatitis has been reported to develop in female dogs with congenital or conformational abnormalities such as hypoplastic, […]

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Perineal Urethrostomy

Perineal Urethrostomy, commonly abbreviated PU, is the surgical treatment of choice for male cats that have recurrent episodes of urethral obstruction. Cats as a species are highly susceptible to environmental stress and particular cats will develop a condition known as “feline idiopathic cystitis” or FIC.  FIC results in inflammation of the urinary tract and produces […]

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Femoral Head Ostectomy (FHO)

Background The femoral head ostectomy (FHO) is a salvage procedure that can be performed on both dogs and cats of almost any age.  The FHO removes the femoral head and neck of the femur in order to eliminate the bone-on-bone contact of the hip. This is done to alleviate pain associated with diseased or injured […]

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Fibrocartilaginous Embolism (FCE)

Fibrocartilaginous embolic myelopathy Fibrocartilaginous embolism (FCE) occurs when fibrocartilaginous material becomes trapped within a spinal or vertebral blood vessel.  FCE can be thought of as a “stroke to the spinal cord.” When this happens, blood supply to a small portion of the spinal cord is compromised and spinal cord injury ensues. The fibrocartilaginous material is […]

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Fibrocartilaginous Embolus in Schnauzers

A recent report in the AAHA Journal indicates that a fibrocartilaginous embolus (FCE) is a common cause of rear limb paralysis in Schnauzers. The exact cause of FCE is still unknown but current theories focus on material being pushed from the intervertebral disc into the vertebral sinus system, thereby creating an embolic episode in the […]

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